Non - steroidal anti - inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that groups together drugs that provide analgesic (pain-killing) and antipyretic (fever-reducing) effects, and, in higher doses, anti-inflammatory effects. The term nonsteroidal distinguishes these drugs from steroids, which, among a broad range of other effects, have a similar eicosanoid-depressing, anti-inflammatory action. First used in 1960, the term served to distance new drugs from steroid-related iatrogenic tragedies.
One of the primary uses of NSAID's is to treat inflammation. This would also include mild to reasonable pains, and fever. Some of the most common afflictions are Headaches, Arthritis, Ankylosing Spondylitis, Sports Injuries, etc...... Ketorolac or (Toradol) is strictly used for short-term treatment. An example would be moderately severe, and acute pain that can be remedied with narcotics. Aspirin is another NSAID drug which can inhibit the clotting of blood, and deter strokes, and heart attacks. Individuals at high risk for strokes, and heart attacks, would benefit from using Aspirin. NSAID,s are also found in cold and allergy preparations. Celecoxib (Celebrex) is used to relieve pain, tenderness, swelling, and stiffness caused by Osteoarthritis, and Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) an inherited condition in which numerous polyps form mainly in the Epithelium of the large intestine.
Common Names of
Non Steroidal Anti - Inflammatory Drugs
Click to see a non-inclusive list of NSAID's.
Anti - Inflammatory Derivatives
ImSAIDs are a class of Peptides that scientist believe to have anti-inflammatory properties. They alter the activation and migration of immune cells involved in amplifying the inflammatory response. This is a new category of anti-inflammatory medication which has nothing to do with steroids or Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.
Prostaglandins are a group of chemicals created by the cells of the human body. They have a number of vital jobs. First is to encourage inflammation which is key for healing. This also equates to pain, fever, and the blood clotting execution of platelets. Their second job is to protect the lining of the stomach. An example of this would be to fight the harmful effects of acids.
Prostaglandins are created within the cells of the body by enzyme's or (cyclooxygenase COX). The two different types of COX enzymes are, COX-1 and COX-2. These enzymes manufacture prostaglandins which create inflammation, pain, and fever. COX-1 is the only one that develops prostaglandins that help sustain platelets and protect the lining of the stomach. NSAID's can block the COX enzymes and diminish prostaglandins within the body. Because of this, inflammation, pain, and fever are drastically reduced. The down side of this is how NSAID's can cause ulcers, and bleeding within the stomach. Long term use of NSAID's can prove fatal.
It is recommended that long-term use of NSAID's be avoided. They should not be prescribed, or taken without the supervision of a qualified doctor. NSAID's can also exacerbate asthma symptoms, and create kidney damage. NSAID's can also increase the risk of a stroke, or heart attack. Heart attacks are also known as Myocardial Infractions. Aspirin is the only Drug the does not fall into this category.
Acetaminophen - (Tylenol) Is often used for pain associated with inflammatory conditions. But be advised that it has no anti-inflammatory properties. It can prove to be vital for anyone looking to reduce the effects of pain, while allowing inflammation to continue its course of action.
Corticosteroids - These are a group of steroid hormones that are produced in the outer portion of the adrenal cortex naturally. They can be manufactured and reproduced in laboratories. After which they can be added to different medications.
Glucocorticoids - Glucocorticoids are created in the Cortex of the Adrenal Cortex. Synthetic Glucocorticoids are prescribed for inflammation of the joints, Temporal Arteritis, Dermatitis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Systemic Lupus, Hepatitis, Asthma, allergic reactions, and Sarcoidosis. Creams and ointments can be prescribed for inflammation of the skin, eyes, lungs, bowels and nose.
Mineralocorticoids - A class of steroid hormones characterized by their influence on salt and water balances. The primary Mineralocorticoid is Aldosterone.
Side Effects of Mineralocorticoids
1. High blood pressure (Hypertension)
2. Low blood potassium levels (Hypokalemia)
3. High blood-sodium levels (Hypernatremia)
4. Connective tissue weakness and Metabolic Alkalosis.
Side Effects of Corticosteroids
Corticosteroid side effects are more prominent in their oral form, as equated to inhalers or injections. Side effects are greater as the dosage is increased. Side effects are also increased when they are used for longer than is prescribed. For anyone taking Corticosteroids over three months the side effects will elevate. It is very likely that Inhaler medications used for a long period of time will cause the user to develop Oral Thrush. Thrush is an infection of the mouth. To counter this effect it is recommended that the user rinse the mouth out with water after each application. Gucocorticoids can also induce Cushing's Syndrome, which is the exposure to extremely high levels of Cortisol.
NSAIDs are also associated with a fairly high incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) on the kidney and over time can lead to chronic kidney disease. The mechanism of these kidney ADRs is due to changes in kidney blood flow. Prostaglandins normally dilate the afferent arterioles of the glomeruli. This helps maintain normal glomerular perfusion and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), an indicator of kidney function. This is particularly important in kidney failure where the kidney is trying to maintain renal perfusion pressure by elevated angiotensin II levels. At these elevated levels, angiotensin II also constricts the afferent arteriole into the glomerulus in addition to the efferent arteriole it normally constricts. Since NSAIDs block this prostaglandin-mediated effect of afferent arteriole dilation, particularly in kidney failure, NSAIDs cause unopposed constriction of the afferent arteriole and decreased RPF (renal perfusion flow) and GFR.
Common ADRs associated with altered kidney function include:
These agents may also cause kidney impairment, especially in combination with other nephrotoxic agents. Kidney failure is especially a risk if the patient is also concomitantly taking an ACE inhibitor (which removes angiotensin II's vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole) and a diuretic (which drops plasma volume, and thereby RPF)—the so-called "triple whammy" effect.
In rarer instances NSAIDs may also cause more severe kidney conditions:
NSAIDs in combination with excessive use of phenacetin or paracetamol (acetaminophen) may lead to analgesic nephropathy.
The modification date for all health, and medical content on this page was last updated, and checked on October 23th, 2015 PST U.S.A.